krmsr,krmso,kerr,kcps lpread ktimpnt, ifilcod[, inpoles][, ifrmrate] ar lpreson asig ar lpfreson asig, kfrqratio
inpoles, ifrmrate (optional) - number of poles, and frame rate per second in the lpc analysis. These arguments are required only when the control file does not have a header; they are ignored when a header is detected. The default value for both is zero.
krmsr - root-mean-square (rms) of the residual of analysis, krmso - rms of the original signal, kerr - the normalized error signal, kcps - pitch in cps.lpread gets its values from the control file according to the input value ktimpnt (in seconds). If ktimpnt proceeds at the analysis rate, time-normal synthesis will result; proceeding at a faster, slower, or variable rate will result in time-warped synthesis. At each K-period, lpread interpolates between adjacent frames to more accurately determine the parameter values (presented as output) and the filter coefficient settings (passed internally to a subsequent lpreson).
The error signal kerr (between 0 and 1) derived during predictive analysis reflects the deterministic/random nature of the analyzed source. This will emerge low for pitched (periodic) material and higher for noisy material. The transition from voiced to unvoiced speech, for example, produces an error signal value of about .3. During synthesis, the error signal value can be used to determine the nature of the lpreson driving function: for example, by arbitrating between pitched and non-pitched input, or even by determining a mix of the two. In normal speech resynthesis, the pitched input to lpreson is a wideband periodic signal or pulse train derived from a unit such as buzz, and the nonpitched source is usually derived from rand. However, any audio signal can be used as the driving function, the only assumption of the analysis being that it has a flat response.
lpfreson is a formant shifted lpreson, in which kfrqratio is the (cps) ratio of shifted to original formant positions. This permits synthesis in which the source object changes its apparent acoustic size. lpfreson with kfrqratio = 1 is equivalent to lpreson.
Generally, lpreson provides a means whereby the time-varying content and spectral shaping of a composite audio signal can be controlled by the dynamic spectral content of another. There can be any number of lpread/lpreson (or lpfreson) pairs in an instrument or in an orchestra; they can read from the same or different control files independently.