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## Groupettes

Duration numbers can have any integral value; for instance,

` !time "4/4"
5cdefg/ `

would encode a measure of *5 in the time of 4* quarter notes. However,
specification of arbitrary rhythmic groupings in this way is at best awkward.
Instead, arbitrary portions of the score section may be enclosed in *groupette
brackets*. The durations of all notes inside groupette brackets will
be multiplied by a fraction *n/d*, where the musical meaning is *d*
in the time of *n*. Assuming *d* and *n* here are integers,
groupette brackets may take these several forms:

` {d:n: .... :} d in the time of n
{d:: .... :} n will be the largest power of 2 less than d
{: .... :} d=3, n=2 (normal triplets) `

It can be seen that the second and third form are abbreviations for
the more common kinds of groupettes. (Observe the punctuation of each form
carefully.) Groupettes may be nested to a reasonable depth. Also, groupette
factors apply only after the written duration is carried from note to note.
Thus, the following example is a correct specification for two measures
of 6/8 time:

` !time "6/8" 8cde {4:3: fgab :} / crc 4.c / `

The notes inside the groupette are *4 in the space of 3* 8th notes,
and the written-8th-note duration carries normally into the next measure.
This closely parallels the way groupette brackets and note durations interact
in standard notation.

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*HTML Csound Manual - ©
Jean Piché & Peter J. Nix, 1994-97*